Bioethanol Production from Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Carbon Footprint Evaluation
The aim of this research was to find the suitable conditions for bio-ethanol production from Ceratophyllum demersum L., an abundant aquatic plant. The parameters affected to alcohol production were evaluated. Percentage of solid (10, 20, and 30% (w/v)), the amount of yeast (5, 10, and 15% (w/v)), pH value (4, 5, and 6) and temperature (30, 35, and 40°C) were carried out. The results elucidated that the conditions to produce the maximum bio-ethanol from Ceratophyllum demersum L. was applied with 10% (w/v) of solid, 10% (w/v) of yeast, controlled pH value of 6 and temperature of 30°C. The highest yield of bio-ethanol production was reached 2.92 g ethanol/L within 24 h. Moreover, the Carbon Footprint for ethanol production was calculated only from 2 steps of life cycle analysis which were the step of raw material acquisition from macro algae cultivation and manufacturing process from bio-ethanol production. Consequently, the carbon footprint for ethanol production from Ceratophyllum demersum L. was 77.88 kg CO2 equivalent.