Page Header

Surface and Adhesion Properties of a Softener Containing Fragrances Microencapsulated with Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) on Cotton, Polyester, and a Mixture of Cotton and Polyester Fabrics

Usaraphan Pithanthanakul, Vilai Rungsardthong, Yulong Ding


The distribution and adhesion of microcapsules on fabric surfaces are crucial factors for the production of long-lasting fragrance textiles. The objective of this research was to study the adhesion property of a softener containing microencapsulated fragrances on fabrics. Pink fruity fragrance (PF), and white floral fragrance (WF) were encapsulated with poly (methyl methacrylate) or PMMA, using the micro-suspension photopolymerization method, to form PF-PMMA, and WF-PMMA microcapsules, respectively. The particle sizes and zeta potential of the capsules were determined. The PF-PMMA and WF-PMMA were added to the fabric softener before being applied to three types of fabrics, cotton, TK (polyester), and TC (a mixture of cotton and TK). Surface morphologies of the fabrics treated with the softener were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Interactions between the microcapsules and the fabrics were studied using a contract angle measurement device, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and Raman microscope. The average size of PF-PMMA was 484.8 ± 4.0 nm, smaller than that of WF-PMMA (664.6 ± 2.9 nm). Cotton was found to be hydrophilic with a rough surface due to cellulose fibers, while TK surface was smooth and hydrophobic. The different fiber structures and surface properties of the fabrics gave rise to different adhesion behavior, evidenced by the contract angle and Raman microscopic data. After 60 days of storage, the microencapsulated fragrances were found to remain on the cotton surfaces, but that on the TC and the TK surfaces disappeared. The results illustrated the interaction between the fabric surface and the microcapsules encapsulated with fragrances, which affected their adhesion. The knowledge obtained can be applied to the development of household products with long-lasting fragrances.


[1] S. Ghayempour and M. Montazer, “Micro/ nanoencapsulation of essential oils and fragrances: Focus on perfumed, antimicrobial, mosquito-repellent and medical textiles,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 33, pp. 497–510, Aug. 2016.


[2] E. G. Saraç, E. Öner, and M. V. Kahraman, “Microencapsulated organic coconut oil as a natural phase change material for thermo-regulating cellulosic fabrics,” Cellulose, vol. 26, pp. 8939–8950, Nov. 2019.


[3] S. Eyupoglu, D. Kut, A. O. Girisgin, C. Eyupoglu, M. Ozuicli, H. Dayioglu, M. Civan, and L. Aydin, “Investigation of the bee-repellent properties of cotton fabrics treated with microencapsulated essential oils,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 89, pp. 1417–1435, Apr. 2019.


[4] D. Pargai and S. Jahan, “Application of vitis vinifera microcapsules on cotton fabric: A potential to prevent uv-induced skin problems,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 17, pp. 412–426, Mar. 2020.


[5] B. B. Podgornik, S. Šandrić, and M. Kert, “Microencapsulation for functional textile coatings with emphasis on biodegradability—A systematic review,” Coatings, vol. 11, p. 1371, Nov. 2021.


[6] U. Pithanthanakul, S. Vatanyoopaisarn, B. Thumthanaruk, C. Puttanlek, D. Uttapap, B. Kiatthanakorn, and V. Rungsardthong, “Encapsulation of fragrances in zein nanoparticles and use as fabric softener for textile application,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 36, pp. 365–373, May 2021.


[7] U. Pithanthanakul, V. Rungsardthong, B. Kiatthanakorn, Chaiyasat, S. Vatanyoopaisarn, B. Thumthanaruk, D. Uttapap, and Y. Ding, “Visible light polymerization of poly (methyl methacrylate) to microencapsulate fragrances and application for fabric softener,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 194, Jan. 2023, Art. no. 116329.


[8] D. R. Perinelli, G. F. Palmieri, M. Cespi, and G. Bonacucina, “Encapsulation of flavours and fragrances into polymeric capsules and cyclodextrins inclusion complexes: An update,” Molecules, vol. 25, p. 5878, Dec. 2020.


[9] Y. Wang, H. Shi, T. D. Xia, T. Zhang, and H. X. Feng, “Fabrication and performances of microencapsulated paraffin composites with polymethylmethacrylate shell based on ultraviolet irradiation-initiated,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 135, pp. 181–187, Jul. 2012.


[10] S. Alay Aksoy, C. Alkan, M. S. Tözüm, S. Demirbağ, R. A. Anayurt, and Y. Ulcay, “Preparation and textile application of poly (methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid)/ n-octadecane and n-eicosane microcapsules,” The Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 108, pp. 30–41, Jan. 2017.


[11] F. Ahangaran, A. H. Navarchian, and F. Picchioni, “Material encapsulation in poly(methyl methacrylate) shell: A review,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 136, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1002/app.48039.


[12] P. Teeka, A. Chaiyasat, and P. Chaiyasat, “Preparation of poly (methyl methacrylate) microcapsule with encapsulated jasmine oil,” Energy Procedia, vol. 56, pp. 181–186, 2014.


[13] R. R. Mallepally, C. C. Parrish, M. A. M. Mc Hugh, and K. R. Ward, “Hydrogen peroxide filled poly(methyl methacrylate) microcapsules: Potential oxygen delivery materials,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 475, pp. 130–137, Nov. 2014.


[14] A. Sarı, C. Alkan, and A. Biçer, “Thermal energy storage characteristics of micro-nanoencapsulated heneicosane and octacosane with poly (methylmethacrylate) shell,” Microencapsulation, vol. 33, pp. 221–228, Apr. 2016.


[15] S. Lashgari, A. R. Mahdavian, H. Arabi, V. Ambrogi, and V. Marturano, “Preparation of acrylic PCM microcapsules with dual responsivity to temperature and magnetic field changes,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 101, pp. 18–28, Apr. 2018.


[16] Q. Li, A. K. Mishra, N. H. Kim, T. Kuila, K. Lau, and J. H. Lee, “Effects of processing conditions of poly(methylmethacrylate) encapsulated liquid curing agent on the properties of self-healing composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 49, pp. 6–15, Jun. 2013.


[17] F. Ahangaran, M. Hayaty, and A. H. Navarchian, “Morphological study of polymethyl methacrylate microcapsules filled with self-healing agents,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 399, pp. 721–731, Mar. 2017


[18] K. Iqbal and D. Sun, “Synthesis of nanoencapsulated Glauber’s salt using PMMA shell and its application on cotton for thermoregulating effect,” Cellulose, vol. 25, pp. 2103–2113, Mar. 2018.


[19] D. Truffier-Boutry, X. A. Gallez, S. Demoustier- Champagne, J. Devaux, M. Mestdagh, B. Champagne, and G. Leloup, “Identification of free radicals trapped in solid methacrylated resins,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 41, pp. 1691–1699, Jun. 2003.


[20] Q. Cao, T. Heil, B. Kumru, M. Antonietti, and B. V. K. J. Schmidt, “Visible-light induced emulsion photopolymerization with carbon nitride as a stabilizer and photoinitiator,” Polymer Chemistry, vol. 10, pp. 5315–5323, Sep. 2019.


[21] M. Abdallah, F. Dumur, B. Graff, A. Hijazi, and J. Lalevée, “High performance dyes based on triphenylamine, cinnamaldehyde and indane-1,3- dione derivatives for blue light induced polymerization A. for 3D printing and photocomposites,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 182, Nov. 2020, Art. no. 108580.


[22] Balcerak, J. Kabatc, Z. Czech, M. Nowak, and K. Mozelewska, “High-performance UV-Vis light induces radical photopolymerization using novel 2-Aminobenzothiazole-based photosensitizers,” Materials, vol. 14, p. 7814, Dec. 2021.


[23] J. Egan and S. Salmon, “Strategies and progress in synthetic textile fiber biodegradability,” SN Applied Sciences, vol. 4, Art. no. 22, Jan. 2022.


[24] Y. He, J. Bowen, J. W. Andrews, M. Liu, J. Smets, and Z. Zhang, “Adhesion of perfume-filled microcapsules to model fabric surfaces,” Microencapsulation, vol. 31, pp. 430–439, Aug. 2014.


[25] Z. Xiao, W. Xu, J. Ma, Y. Zhao, Y. Niu, X. Kou, and Q. Ke, “Double-encapsulated microcapsules for the adsorption to cotton fabrics,” Coatings, vol. 11, p. 426, Apr. 2021.


[26] Y. He, “Understanding the interactions between microcapsules and fabric surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, 2013.


[27] M. Guvendiren, B. Purcell, and J. A. Burdick, “Photopolymerizable Systems,” in Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 413–438, 2012.


[28] A. Shrivastava, “Polymerization,” in Introduction to Plastics Engineering. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 17–48, 2018.


[29] A. O. Elzoghby, M. S. Freag, and K. A. Elkhodairy, “Biopolymeric nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to brain tumors,” in Nanotechnology- Based Targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Brain Tumors. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 169–190, 2018.


[30] R. Samu, A. Moulee, and V. G. Kumar, “Effect of charge and hydrophobicity on adsorption of modified starches on polyester,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 220, pp. 260– 268, Dec. 1999.


[31] H. Yang, K. Fang, X. Liu, F. An, “High-quality images inkjetted on different woven cotton fabrics cationized with P(St-BA-VBT) copolymer nanospheres,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 11, pp. 29218–29230, Aug. 2019.


[32] M. Wortmann, N. Frese, L. Hes, A. Gölzhäuser, E. Moritzer, and A. Ehrmann, “Improved abrasion resistance of textile fabrics due to polymer coatings,” Journal of Industrial Textiles, vol. 49, pp 572–583, Nov. 2019.


[33] P. Prabhakar, R. K. Sen, M. Patel, Shruti, N. Dwivedi, S. Singh, P. Kumar, M. Chouhan, A. K. Yadav, D. P. Mondal, P. R. Solanki, A. K. Srivastava, and C. Dhand, “Development of copper impregnated bio-inspired hydrophobic antibacterial nanocoatings for textiles,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 220, Art. no. 112913, Dec. 2022.


[34] E. H. Portella, D. Romanzini, C. C. Angrizani, S. C. Amico, and A. J. Zattera, “Influence of stacking sequence on the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of cotton/glass fiber reinforced polyester composites,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 19, pp. 542–547, Apr. 2016.


[35] L. L. Cho, “Identification of textile fiber by Raman microspectroscopy,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 55–62, Jan. 2007.


[36] V. K. Thakur, D. Vennerberg, S. A. Madbouly, and M. R. Kessler, “Bio-inspired green surface functionalization of PMMA for multifunctional capacitors,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, p. 6677, 2014.


[37] S. Zhenyu, L. Zhanqiang, S. Hao, and Z. Xianzhi, “Prediction of contact angle for hydrophobic surface fabricated with micro-machining based on minimum Gibbs free energy,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 364, pp. 597–603, Feb. 2016.


[38] K. J. Thomas, M. Sheeba, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Raman spectra of polymethyl methacrylate optical fibres excited by a 532 nm diode pumped solid state laser,” Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol. 10, May 2008, Art. no. 055303.


[39] G. Nelson, “Microencapsulated colourants for technical textile application,” in Advances in the Dyeing and Finishing of Technical Textiles. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 78–104, 2013.


[40] P. Monllor, L. Capablanca, J. Gisbert, P. Díaz, I. Montava, and Á. Bonet, “Improvement of microcapsule adhesion to fabrics,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 80, pp. 631–635, May, 2010.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2023.05.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.