Optimal Design and Techno-Economic Analysis for Corncob Particles Briquettes: A Literature Review of the Utilization of Agricultural Waste and Analysis Calculation
Corncob is usually disposed of directly as waste, creating problems in the environment, while it can be converted into valuable materials. This research aimed to evaluate the literature review on briquette production from agricultural waste (using non-binder and cold press with a binder) and the current works on techno-economic analysis, to propose an optimal design for the production of briquette from corncob waste, and to perform a techno-economic analysis based on the selected optimal processing method. The engineering perspective based on stoichiometry and mass balance showed the potential corncob briquette manufacture in both home and large scales due to the possible use of inexpensive and commercially available equipment and raw materials. The economic perspective [based on several economic evaluation factors (i.e., gross profit margin, payback period, break-even point, cumulative net present value, return of investment, internal rate return, and profitability index) under ideal and non-ideal conditions by considering internal (i.e., sales, raw materials, utilities, and variable cost) and external aspects (i.e., tax)] confirmed the prospective development of the project in the large-scale production with a lifetime of more than 18 years. The main issue in the project is the raw material (i.e. tapioca flour), giving the most impact on the project’s feasibility. Even in severe conditions, the project is feasible. The great endurance was also confirmed in the case of a higher tax rate. This study demonstrates the importance of producing corncob-based briquettes for improving the economic value and giving alternatives for problem solvers in the utilization of agricultural waste.
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